四六级专项练习之 长篇阅读

资环之声 2018-11-20 11:48:43


四六级专项练习之长篇阅读

“四级专项练习”

         Robot Management
  A. Robots have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff of management fact. A Czech playwright, Karel Capek, gave them their name in 1920 (from the Slavonic word for "work" ). An American writer, Isaac Asimov, confronted them with their most memorable dilemmas.
  Hollywood turned them into superheroes and supervillains. When some film critics drew up lists of Hollywood's 50 greatest good guys and 50 greatest baddies, the only character to appear on both lists was a robot, the Terminator.
  

       B. It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing auxiliary jobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world already has more than lm industrial robots. There is now an acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination.
  Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer to that of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow's robots will increasingly take on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people, they will be free to wander.
  

      C. America's armed forces have blazed a trail here. They now have no fewer than 12,000 robots serving in their ranks. Peter Singer, of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank (智囊团), says mankind's 5,000-year monopoly on the fighting of war is breaking down. Recent additions to the battlefield include tiny "insects" that perform reconnaissance (侦查) missions and giant "dogs" to terrify enemies. The Pentagon is also working on the EATR, a robot that fuels itself by eating whatever biomass (生物量) it finds around it.
  

      D. But the civilian world cannot be far behind. Who better to clean sewers or suck up nuclear waste than these remarkable machines? The Japanese have made surprisingly little use of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, given their world leadership in this area. They say that they had the wrong sort of robots in the wrong places. But they have issued a global call for robotic assistance and are likely to put more robots to work shortly.
  

     E. As robots advance into the service industries they are starting to look less like machines and more like living creatures. The Paro (made by AIST, a Japanese research agency) is shaped like a baby seal and responds to attention. Honda's robot, ASIMO, is humanoid and can walk, talk and respond to commands.
  

      F.Until now executives have largely ignored robots, regarding them as an engineering rather than a management problem. This cannot go on: robots are becoming too powerful and ubiquitous (无处不在的). Companies may need to rethink their strategies as they gain access to these new sorts of workers. Do they really need to outsource production to China, for example, when they have clever machines that work ceaselessly without pay? They certainly need to rethink their human-resources policies--starting by questioning whether they should have departments devoted to purely human resources.
  

      G.The first issue is how to manage the robots themselves. Asimov laid down the basic rule in 1942: no robot should harm a human. This rule has been reinforced by recent technological improvements: robots are now much more sensitive to their surroundings and can be instructed to avoid hitting people. But the Pentagon's plans make all this a bit more complicated: many of its robots will be, in essence, killing machines.
  

      H. A second question is how to manage the homo side of homo-robo relations. Workers have always worried that new technologies will take away their livelihoods, ever since the original Luddites' fears about mechanised looms. That worry takes on a particularly intense form when the machines come with a human face: Capek's play that gave robots their name depicted a world in which they initially brought lots of benefits but eventually led to mass unemployment and discontent. Now, the arrival of increasingly humanoid automatons in workplaces, in an era of high unemployment, is bound to provoke a reaction.
  

      I.So, companies will need to work hard to persuade workers that robots are productivity-enhancers, not just job- eating aliens. They need to show employees that the robot sitting alongside them can be more of a helpmate than a threat. Audi has been particularly successful in introducing industrial robots because the carmaker asked workers to identify areas where robots could improve performance and then gave those workers jobs overseeing the robots. Employers also need to explain that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world: one reason why Germany has lost fewer such jobs than Britain is that it has five times as many robots for every 10,000 workers.
  

      J.These two principles--don't let robots hurt or frighten people--are relatively simple. Robot scientists are tackling more complicated problems as robots become more sophisticated. They are keen to avoid hierarchies (层级) among rescue-robots (because the loss of the leader would render the rest redundant). So they are using game theory to make sure the robots can communicate with each other in egalitarian (平等) ways. They are keen to avoid duplication between robots and their human handlers. So they are producing more complicated mathematical formulae in order that robots can constantly adjust themselves to human intentions.
  This suggests that the world could be on the verge of a great management revolution: making robots behave like humans rather than the 20th century's preferred option, making humans behave like robots.


 46. Tomorrow's robots will be free to move around rather than being locked up in cages so as not to hurt people.

47. It is not easy for people to regard robots as management stuff, for the later are mostly seen in science fictions.


48. Robots appear more like living creatures as they enter into the service industry.

49. According to the Pentagon's plans, many of its robots will essentially become killing machines.

50. The Japanese didn't use a lot of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, considering their world leadership in the robot field.

51. Companies should show their workers that robots can be more of a helper rather than a threat to them.

52. The fact that more and more human-like robots are used in workplaces will surely arouse reaction in a time of high unemployment.

53. Robots, who are considered as an engineering instead of a management problem, have been largely neglected by executives.

54. Scientists are trying to enable robots to constantly adjust themselves to people's intenlions.

55. The example that Germany has lost fewer manufacturing jobs than Britain shows that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world.


                管理机器人
  A.[47]很久以来。机器人都被认为是科幻小说里的东西,因此人们很难将它们视为管理的对象。捷克剧作家KarelCapek于1920年将它们命名为“机器人”(来源于斯拉夫语中的“工作”一词)。在美国作家Isaac Asimov的笔下,机器人面对了令它们最为难忘的抉择。好莱坞把机器人变成了超级英雄和超级恶魔。
      在由电影评论家总结出的好莱坞50个最好角色和50个最坏角色的名单上,唯一一个同时登上两份榜单的角色就是一个机器人——终结者。
  

      B.现在到了管理思想家跟上科幻小说作家步伐的时候了。自20世纪60年代起机器人就在生产线上做一些辅助工作了。世界上已有超过100万的工业机器人。现在机器人变得更聪明、更廉价的速度在不断加快,这两者简直是一种爆炸性的结合。机器人正在学着与周围的世界互动。它们看东西的能力正在变得越来越接近人类,它们获取信息及做出相应反应的能力也在接近人类。未来,机器人将能够从事越来越多精细而复杂的工作。[46]机器人将不会再被关起来以防止它们与人们发生冲突,而是可以自由移 动。
  

      C.美国军队已经在这方面开拓了一条道路。他们现在有不少于l2000个机器人正在服役。智囊团布鲁金斯学会的PeterSinger说,5000年来只有人类参与战争的局面正在被打破。近来被增派到战场的机器人包括执行侦察任务的小“昆虫”和恫吓敌人的大“狗”。五角大楼还在研发一种强动力自动战术机器人,它们可以通过吞食其周边的生物量来补给自己的能量。
  

     D.但机器人在民用方面也没有落后太远。有谁能比这些神奇的设备更适于清洁下水道或清理核废料呢?[50]日本人在近期的一次震后清理中所用的机器人数量惊人地少,即使他们在这一领域处于世界领先地位。他们说他们在错误的地点选择了错误的机器人类别。但是他们已经率先在全球范围内呼吁寻求机器人的援助.而且似乎马上就会投入更多的机器人进行作业。
  

     E.[48]当机器人进入到服务产业时,它们开始变得不像机器,而更像生物了。日本产业技术研究院是一所研发机构,它们制作的机器人Paro形似一只小海豹,并能对命令做出回应。本田公司研制的机器人ASIM0具有很多人类的特征,它能够走路、说话以及回应命令。
  

     F.[53]时至今日,管理人员一直在很大程度上忽视了机器人,把它们当做工程问题而不是管理问题。这种现象不能再继续下去了:机器人正变得功能强大且无处不在。随着企业可以使用机器人这种新型员工,它们可能需要重新考虑自身的人力资源战略了。例如,在拥有不计报酬、可以持续工作的智能机器的情况下,它们是否真的需要把产品外包给中国加工?它们必然要重新考虑它们的人力资源政策——就从质疑是否应该有一个纯粹管理人力资源的部门开始。
  

     G.第一个问题是如何管理机器人本身。Asimov在1942年确立了基本原则:机器人不能伤害人类。这一原则已经通过近年来的技术改良得以加强:现在的机器人对于它们周围的事物更加敏感,还可以遵照指示避免袭击人类。[49]但是五角大楼的计划使得这一切变堡更为复杂:从本质上来说,它们所制造的机器人有很多将成为杀人机器。
  

    H.第二个问题是如何处理人与机器人的关系中人类这一方的问题。从最初的科技反对者恐惧机械织布机开始,劳动者们总是担心新技术会抢走他们的饭碗。当机器以人类的面孔出现时,那种担忧变得尤为强烈:capek那部给机器人取名字的戏剧中描绘了这样一个世界:起初,机器人带来了很多好处,最终,它们却导致了大量的失业和不满。[52]在现在这样一个高失业率的时代,工作场所越来越多地使用类人机器人必然会激起反对。
  

     I.所以,企业必须努力使工人相信机器人有助于提高产量,而不只是吞噬职位的外来者。[51]它们需要展现给员工们看:坐在他们身边的机器人更多的是他们的帮手,而不是威胁。奥迪在引进工业机器人方面一直做得特别成功,因为这家汽车制造商让员工去发现那些机器人可以改进工作的领域,然后将监管那些机器人的岗位提供给员工。[55]企业还需要阐明,机器人有助于保留富有国家的生产岗位:德国之所以没有象英国一样丧失如此之多的生产岗位,原因之一就是,在德国,每一万名工人所对应的机器人数量是英国的5倍。
  

    J.这两条原则,即不要让机器人伤害或吓到人类,是相对简单的。随着机器人变得日益复杂,机器人科学家们正着手处理更复杂的问题。他们尽量不在救援机器人中分出三六九等(因为一旦没有带头的机器人,其他的机器人就显得多余了)。所以他们利用游戏理论来确保机器人能以平等的方式互相交流。他们尽力避免机器人与它们的人类操作者的作用重叠。[54]因此他们正在计算更多复杂的数学公式以使机器人能够依照人类的意愿不断地进行自我调节。这表明世界即将发生一次重大的管理变革:让机器人的行为更像人类,而不是像20世纪所倾向的那样,使人类的行为日益向机器人靠拢。


【答案解析】

46.B
解析:题干意为,未来的机器人将能够自由活动,而不是被关起来以防止伤害人类。注意抓住题干中的关键信息tomorrow’s robots、free to move around和hurt people。文中论及机器人未来发展趋势的内容出 现在B段,该段末句提到,机器人将不会再被关起来以防止发生人机之间的冲突,它们将可以自由移动。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。

47.A
解析:题于意为,人们很难想象机器人是能够被管理的事物,因为它们一直都是出现在科幻小说中。注意抓住题干中的关键信息not easy、management stuff和science fictions。文中A段首句提到,很久以来,机器人都被认为是科幻小说里的东西,因此人们很难想象它们能够被管理。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。

48.E
解析:题干意为,当机器人进入服务产业时,它们往往看起来更像生物。注意抓住题干中的关键信息more like living creatures和enter into the service industry。文中论及机器人在服务业中表现的内容出现在E段,该段首句提到,随着机器人进入到服务产业,它们开始变得不那么像机器,而更像生物了。接下来的第二句和第三句用两个例子来证明这一观点。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。

49.G
解析:题干意为,依据五角大楼的计划,它们所制造的很多机器人在本质上都会成为杀人机器。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Pentagon’s plans、many of its robots和killing machines。文中G段论述了与五角大楼的计划相关的内容,该段提到了机器人管理的基本原则,即机器人不能伤害人类,该段末句提到,但是五角大楼的计划使得这一切变得更为复杂:从本质上来说,它们所制造的机器人有很多将成为杀人机器。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为G。

50.D
解析:题干意为,鉴于其在机器人领域的世界领先地位,日本在近期的一次地震后并没有大量使用机器人来完成清理工作。注意抓住题千中的关键信息Japanese、clear up after the recent earthquake和world leadershipinthe robotfield。文中论及日本使用清洁机器人的内容出现在D段,该段第三句提到,日本人在近期的一次震后清理中所用的机器人数量惊人地少,即使他们在这一领域一直处于世界领先地位。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为D。

51.I
解析:题干意为,企业应该向员工们展示,机器人对他们来说,更多的是起到帮手的作用,而不是威胁。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Companies、workers和a helper ratherthan athreat。文中论及企业、员工和机器人关系的内容出现在1段,该段第二句提到,它们需要展现给员工们看:坐在他们身边的机器人更多的是他们的帮手,而不是威胁。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为I。

52.H
解析:题干意为,在目前这样一个高失业率的年代,越来越多的类人机器人被用于工作场所的事实必然会引起一些反对。注意抓住题干中的关键信息human.1ike robots are used in workplaces和arouse reactionin atimeofhigh unemployment。文中论及高失业率以及机器人在工作场所的使用的内容出现在H段,该段末句提到,在现在这样一个高失业率的时代,工作场所越来越多地使用类人机器人必然会激起反对。原文中的humanoid automatons对应题干中的human—like robots。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。

53.F
解析:题干意为,管理人员在很大程度上忽视了机器人,他们把机器人当做工程问题而不是管理问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息anengineeringinsteadofamanagementproblem和largelyneglectedbyexecutives。
文中第F段对机器人管理问题进行论述,该段首句提到,时至今日,管理人员一直在很大程度上忽视了机器人,把它们当做工程问题而不是管理问题。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F。

54.J
解析:题干意为,科学家们正在试图使机器人可以根据人们的意愿不断地进行自我调节。注意抓住题干中的关键信息scientists和constantly adjustthemselves。文中提及机器人可以进行自我调节的内容出现在J段,该段第六句提到科学家们正在计算更多复杂的数学公式以使机器人能够依照人类的意愿不断地进行自我调节。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。

55.I
解析:题干意为,德国失去的生产岗位比英国要少的例子表明,机器人能够帮助保留富裕国家的生产岗位。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Germany、Britain、fewer manufacturingjobs和help preserve manufacturingjobs。文中对比英德两国制造业岗位的内容出现在1段,该段末句提到,企业还需要阐明机器人有助于保留富裕国家的生产岗位:德国之所以没有像英国一样丧失如此之多的生产岗位,原因之一就是,在德国每一万名工人所对应的机器人数量是英国的5倍。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为I。


六级专项练习

     How Ozone Pollution Works

  A) The weather report on the radio or TV tells you that it is going to be sunny and hot and that an orange ozone alert has been issued. What is ozone? What does an orange alert mean? Why should you be concerned about it? In this article, we will examine what ozone is, how it is produced, what health hazards it poses and what you can do to reduce ozone pollution.

  

     B) Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atoms bound together (O3). It is unstable and highly reactive. Ozone is used as a bleach, a deodorizing agent, and a sterilization agent for air and drinking water. At low concentrations, it is toxic. Ozone is found naturally in small concentrations in the stratosphere, a layer of Earth’s upper atmosphere. In this upper atmosphere, ozone is made when ultraviolet light from the sun splits an oxygen molecule (O2), forming two single oxygen atoms. If a freed atom collides with an oxygen molecule, it becomes ozone. Stratospheric ozone has been called “good” ozone because it protects the Earth’s surface from dangerous ultraviolet light.

  

      C) Ozone can also be found in the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone (often termed “ bad ” ozone) is man - made, a result of air pollution from internal combustion engines and power plants. Automobile exhaust and industrial emissions release a family of nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), by-products of burning gasoline and coal. NOx and VOC combine chemically with oxygen to form ozone during sunny, high- temperature conditions of late spring, summer and early fall. High levels of ozone are usually formed in the heat of the afternoon and early evening, dissipating during the cooler nights.

  

      D) Although ozone pollution is formed mainly in urban and suburban areas, it ends up in rural areas as well, carried by prevailing winds or resulting from cars and trucks that travel into rural areas. Significant levels of ozone pollution can be detected in rural areas as far as 250 miles downwind from urban industrial zones.

  

     E) You can make ozone test strips to detect and monitor ozone levels in your own backyard or around your school. You will need corn starch, filter paper (coffee filters work well) and potassium iodide (can be ordered from a science education supplier such as Carolina Biological Supply or Fisher Scientific). Basically, you make a paste from water, corn starch and potassium-iodide, and you paint this paste on strips of filter paper. You then expose the strips to the air for eight hours. Ozone in the air will react with the potassium iodide to change the color of the strip. You will also need to know the relative humidity, which you can get from a newspaper, weather broadcast or home weather station.

  

      F) When you inhale ozone, it travels throughout your respiratory tract. Because ozone is very corrosive, it damages the bronchioles and alveoli in your lungs, air sacs that are important for gas exchange. Repeated exposure to ozone can inflame lung tissues and cause respiratory infections.

  

     G) Ozone exposure can aggravate existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, reduce your lung function and capacity for exercise and cause chest pains and coughing. Young children, adults who are active outdoors and people with respiratory diseases are most susceptible to the high levels of ozone encountered during the summer. In addition to effects on humans, the corrosive nature of ozone can damage plants and trees. High levels of ozone can destroy agricultural crops and forest vegetation.

  

     H) To protect yourself from ozone exposure, you should be aware of the Air Quality Index (AQI) in your area every day—you can usually find it in the newspaper or on a morning weather forecast on TV or radio. You should also be familiar with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guide for ozone-alert values.

  

      I) What do the numbers in the AQI mean? The AQI measures concentrations of five air pollutants: ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The EPA has chosen these pollutants as criteria pollutants, but these are not all of the pollutants in the air. These concentrations are compared to a standard set out in federal law. An index value of 100 means that all of the criteria pollutants are at the maximum level that is considered safe for the majority of the population. To reduce your exposure to ozone, you should avoid exercising during afternoon and early evening hours in the summer.

  

     J) There are several ways you can help to decrease ozone pollution. Limit using your automobile during afternoon and early evening hours in the late spring, summer and early fall. Do not use gasoline-powered lawn equipment during these times. Do not fuel your car during these times. Do not light fires or outdoor grills during these times. Keep the engine of your car or boat tuned. Make sure that your tires are properly inflated. Use environmentally safe paints, cleaning and office products (some of these chemicals are sources of VOC).

  

     K) Besides personal attempts to reduce ozone pollution, the EPA has initiated more stringent air-quality standards (such as the Clean Air Act and its modifications) to reduce air pollution. Compliance with these standards by industries, manufacturers and state and local governments has significantly reduced the levels of many common air pollutants.

  

     L) With continued conservation and reduction practices, adherence to ozone-pollution warnings, research and government regulation, ozone-pollution levels should

  continue to fall. Perhaps future generations will not be threatened by this environmental pollutant.

 

     M) The thing that determines whether ozone is good or bad is its location. Ozone is ‘‘good,,when it is in the stratosphere. The stratosphere is a layer of the atmosphere starting at the level of about 6 miles (about 10 kilometers) above sea level. The stratosphere naturally contains about six parts per million of ozone, and this ozone is very beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation and prevents it from reaching us.

  

    N) Ozone is “bad” when it is at ground level. Ozone is a very reactive gas that is hard on lung tissue. It also damages plants and buildings. Any ozone at ground level is a problem. Unfortunately, chemicals in car exhaust and chemicals produced by some industries react with light to produce lots of ozone at ground level. In cities, the ozone level can rise to a point where it becomes hazardous to our health. That’s when you hear about an ozone warning on the news.

  1. When ultraviolet rays from the sun separate an oxygen molecule into two single oxygen atoms in the stratosphere, the combination of a single oxygen atom and an oxygen molecule forms ozone.

  

       2. You can make ozone test strips by yourself to find out about ozone levels in your own locale.

  

       3. Long-time exposure to ozone is badly harmful to our respiratory system.

  

       4. Chemicals in industrial waste gas and vehicle exhaust react with light to form lots of ozone at ground level.

  

      5. Internal combustion engines and power plants cause the artificial tropospheric ozone, also known as “bad” ozone.

  

      6. Ozone is very helpful because it absorbs UV radiation and separates us from it.

  

       7. Using gasoline-powered lawn equipment in the late spring, summer and early fall may increase ozone pollution.

 

      8. Ozone pollution occurs in urban and suburban areas as well as in rural areas.

  

      9. In order to decrease ozone pollution, the EPA has set up more rigorous air-quality standards.

  

     10. Pay close attention to the Air Quality Index in your area every day can keep you away from ozone exposure.


文章精要:

文章精要

  文章主要介绍了什么是臭氧,臭氧污染的形成、危害,以及臭氧有利的一 面。文章还具体介绍了如何自己手工制作检测仪;如何避免暴露在臭氧之下;如 何预防和减少臭氧污染等。


答案解析

  1. B 本题答案的信息来自B段的倒数第二、三句话。原文中提到太阳紫外线将 氧分子分成了两个单独的氧原子,氧原子与氧分子再结合就生成了臭氧。 题干正好表达了这个意思。ultraviolet rays即是原文中的ultraviolet light。

  

     2. E 本题答案的信息来自E段第一句话。题目中的find out about意为“弄清有关 的情况”,和原文中的detect and monitor含义相对应;题目中的inyour own locale和原文中的in your own backyard相对应。

 

     3. F 本题答案的信息来自F段。F段提到人吸入臭氧后,它可以贯穿你的呼吸系统。接着提到它可能损害细支气管、肺部等呼吸系统的部位,故可知长期 暴露在臭氧下有损呼吸系统。

  

     4. N 本题答案的信息来自N段第五句话,题干是对本句的同义转述。

  

     5. C 本题答案的信息来自C段的第二句话。原句中先说“果”后说“因”,题目将

  “因”提前,然后说“果”;原文中的man-made与题干中的artificial相对应; 原文中的termed与题干中的known as相对应。

  

     6. M 本题答案的信息来自M段第二句和最后一句话。原文中第二句话首先提到

  Ozone is “good” when it is in the stratosphere.,在最后一句中提到臭氧为什 么有益;原文中的beneficial与题干中的helpfUl相对应;题目中的separates from对应原文中的prevents from。

  

   7. J 本题答案的信息来自J段第一、二、三句话。原文中J段的首句提到有几种可以降低臭氧污染的方法,接下来提到的一种方法是Do not use gasoline- powered lawn equipment during these times.由此推测Using gasoline-powered lawn equipment会导致臭氧污染增加;而由第二句话可推测出原文中的 during these times指的是in the late spring, summer and early fall。

  

    8. D 本题答案的信息来自D段第一句话。原文提到臭氧污染主要在城市和城市郊区出现,但因为风和汽车、卡车运输的作用,农村也会发生臭氧污染, 题干是对此的归纳。

  

    9. K 本题答案的信息来自K段第一句话。原文中的initiated和题目中的set up属于同义转换;原文中的stringent替换为了rigorous;原文中的reduce ozone pollution替换为了decrease ozone pollution。

  

   10. H本题答案的信息来自H段第一句话。题目中的keep you away from对应原文的protect yourself from;题目中的Pay close attention to 对应原文的should be aware o


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