经济学人精读|《简·爱》小说中的事实

缤纷英语听力 2018-09-13 13:52:18

Jane Eyre

简·爱

The facts of fiction

小说中的事实



导读

The Secret History of Jane Eyre: How Charlotte Brontë Wrote Her Masterpiece. 

《简·爱 神秘史》:夏洛蒂·勃朗特的著作是怎样诞生的。 

By John Pfordresher. W.W. Norton; 254pages; $26.95; £20

作者:约翰·奥德雷瑟.W.W 诺丁;254页;$26.95; £20


CRITICS relish a bit of detective work. Four hundred years after William Shakespeare died, people still offer new theories about the true identity of the “Dark Lady” and the “Fair Youth” of his sonnets. Journalists have been dogged in their attempts to discover the writer behind the pseudonymElena Ferrante”.


评论家们也很享受对文本做侦探工作的乐趣。即使在威廉·莎士比亚死后400年,人们还在不断提出十四行诗中“黑女郎”和“美少年”形象真实身份的新理论。报纸撰稿人们也依旧在固执地尝试寻找着笔名为“伊莲娜·弗兰特”的作家的真面目。


拓展知识:伊莲娜•弗兰特(Elena Ferrante)意大利当代匿名作家,1992年开始发表小说,从2011年开始发表“那不勒斯四部曲”引起轰动,成为国际畅销书。2016年入选《时代周刊》评选的“当今世界100个最具影响力的人物”榜单。由于埃莱娜•费兰特从来不出席活动,至今没人知道他(她)的性别和真名。

 

Sonnet 十四行诗,产生于文艺复兴时期的一种诗歌形式,以莎士比亚的最为著名。

 

Pseudonym /ˈsjuː.də.nɪm/

笔名;假名

例句:She writes under a pseudonym. 她用笔名写作。


Charlotte Brontë has been the subject of many such investigations. During her lifetime, the pen name “Currer Bell” provoked wild speculations; review ers variously concluded that the author was a man, a woman, or a mixed-sex writing duo. Readers past and present have wondered how a shy curate’s daughter from Yorkshire came to write “Jane Eyre”, a finely wrought tale of passion and darkness, when her life contained seemingly little of either. 


夏洛蒂·勃朗特一直是很多此类研究的对象。在世时,她的笔名“柯勒·贝尔”曾引发了广泛的猜测;评论家们各抒己见,认为作者既可能是男人、女人,也可能是一对男女搭档。古往今来,读者们一直心怀疑问——一位约克郡腼腆的牧师之女是如何创作出《简·爱》这部充满激情、控诉黑暗的描绘精准的故事,尤其当她的生活似乎并不包括这两个元素的时候。


With “The Secret History of Jane Eyre”, John Pfordresher, a professor at Georgetown University, seeks to provide some answers. His aim is to unearth the real-life people and events that inspired Brontë’s much-loved classic novel.


在《简·爱 神秘史》一书中,美国乔治城大学教授约翰·奥德雷瑟,试图找到一些答案。他创作本书的目的在于挖掘促使勃朗特完成这部深受世人喜爱的小说经典的人物和事件的原型。


provoke  /prəˈvəʊk/

1.激起,引起(尤指负面反应)

短语Provoke sb into (doing) sth

Provoke sb to do sth

引发某人做某事

例句:The prospect of increased prices has already provoked an outcry.

物价上涨的预测已经引发了强烈抗议。

2.激怒,挑衅

例句:It was a vicious-looking dog and I didn't want to provoke it.

那只狗看起来很凶,我可不想招惹它。

 

mixed-sex 

性别混合的,这里本意为一男一女,意译为“男女搭档”

 

unearth /ʌnˈɜːθ/

un-使相反,earth,土,土中。即从土中挖出,掘出

1.发掘,掘出,使出土

Building at the site was halted after human remains were unearthed earlier this month.

自从本月初在工地挖出人类遗骸之后,施工就停止了。

2.(尤指在仔细搜寻之后)发现

A private detective has unearthed some fresh evidence.

一个私家侦探显然已经找到了新的证据。


Unfortunately, Mr. Pfordresher cannot illuminate the writing process itself, save for noting the date that Brontë first put pen to paper. She left “no outlines, notes about characters, drafts scribbled over with revisions and additions” or any other such tantalising clues. So Mr. Pfordresher chooses to follow the chronology of the novel and weave in the biographical detail.


可惜的是,约翰·奥德雷瑟也无法阐明这部作品的创作过程,只标注了勃朗特动笔的日期。她没有留下任何大纲、人物性格的说明,也没有留下任何修改和增添内容的潦草稿件,以及诱人的线索。所以,奥德雷瑟教授选择了顺着小说的年代表的方式来添加人物传记的细节。 


Illuminate /ɪˈluː.mɪ.neɪt/

1.为…照明,照亮

The streets were illuminated with strings of colored lights.

这些街道被一串串彩灯照亮了。

2.to explain and show more clearly something that is difficult to understand

阐明,解释

an article which illuminates the issues at stake

对一些紧要的问题进行阐述的文章

 

scribble

/ˈskrɪb.əl/

1.匆匆地写;乱涂乱画

The baby's just scribbled all over my new dictionary!

这个孩子刚才在我的新词典上乱涂乱画!

2.接双宾语 I'll just scribble Dad a note/scribble a note to Dad to say we're going out.

我得写张条儿给爸爸,告诉他我们出去了。

短语 scribble down 胡乱写下

     scribble out sth 胡乱写出…

 

revision /rɪˈvɪʒ.ən/

1.名词:修正;修改

These proposals will need a lot of revision.

这些提案需要进行大刀阔斧的修改。

2.动词:复习;温习

She did no revision, but she still got a very high mark.

她没有复习,但是仍然考了很高的分数。


John Reed, Jane Eyre’s young adversary, is based on Charlotte’s experience of the boys she met during her time in Belgium, as well as the unpleasant sons of the Sidgwick family (for whom she served as a governess) and a character in “Agnes Grey”, her sister Anne’s novel. Jane’s time at the dreadful Lowood Institution is reconstructed from Charlotte’s grim memories of Cowan Bridge school, only made less “exquisitely painful” (tracts were published defending the school and its proprietors). 


约翰·里德, 简·爱幼年时的对手,是以勃朗特在比利时遇到的男孩们为原型刻画的,也受到了在西奇维克家讨厌的儿子们(她是他们的家庭女教师)和她的姐妹安妮的小说《艾格尼丝·格雷》中一个人物的影响。简·爱在糟糕透顶的海沃德学校的度过的时光是根据夏洛特在考恩桥学校的灰色记忆改编的,只是没有那么强烈的痛苦(一些为保护该学校及其所有人而出版的短文如是说)。


The virtuous and stoical Helen Burns is a reincarnation of Maria, the sister who died at 11; Emily and Anne are also present as Diana and Mary Rivers. So extensive is the biographical framework on which Charlotte built, Mr. Pfordresher argues, that readers should view “Jane Eyre” as autobiography rather than a work of fiction.


其中贞洁而恬淡寡欲的海伦·伯恩斯则是玛利亚的翻版,勃朗特11岁时死去的姐妹。艾米丽和安妮也在书中扮演了戴安娜和玛丽·里弗斯的角色。奥德雷瑟教授指出,夏洛蒂在书中建立了大量的传记体框架,因此读者应该将《简·爱》更多地看作自传而不是小说。


adversary /ˈæd.və.sər.i/

 =enemy

对手,敌手

He saw her as his main adversary within the company.

在他眼中,她是他在公司中的头号对手。

 

governess  /ˈɡʌv.ən.əs/

(尤指旧时的)家庭女教师

Govern有管理的意思

 

Agnes Grey《阿格尼斯·格雷》,安妮·勃朗特作品,是一部现实主义的小说,写的是家教的故事,可以说是安妮本人的一部自传。

 

virtuous /ˈvɜː.tʃu.əs/

1.道德高尚的;拥有美德的;品行端正的

He described them as virtuous and hard-working people.

他将他们描述成一个品德高尚、勤劳善良的民族。

2.自命清高的,自命不凡的

He only does charity work so he can feel virtuous.

我确信他做那份慈善工作只是为了让自己感觉比别人高尚。


Yet when it comes to the inspiration for Mr. Rochester and Bertha Mason, two of the most compelling figures in English literature, Mr. Pfordresher stumbles. His argument that Charlotte drew on her father Patrick’s demanding presence, fiery temper and “sexual energy” for Mr. Rochester is unconvincing: Patrick’s attempts to remarry after his wife’s death seem more to do with caring for his six children than with lust. 


然而当谈到罗切斯特先生和伯莎·梅森这两个用英国文学上最引人入胜的两个角色时,奥德雷瑟教授的判断似乎出现了偏差。他所认为的罗切斯特先生的形象沿袭了夏洛蒂父亲帕特里克一贯苛刻的仪态,火爆的脾气和“性能量”是不令人信服的:帕特里克试图再婚的决定更多是为了六个孩子考虑而非色欲。


The claim that Bertha’s lunacy was based on Charlotte’s trip to North Lees Hall—where the mistress of the house “reputedly went mad, was confined in a padded room, and died in a fire”—is a fair one. But Branwell, the author’s miscreant brother, is an equally good candidate that Mr. Pfordresher ignores. In her biography of Charlotte, Claire Harman points out that he kept the household awake at night “with his noisy despairing” over a past lover and is rumored to have set his own bed on fire.


书中认为对伯莎·梅森的愚蠢行为的描写来源于夏洛蒂去往北里斯厅的旅途,在那里房子的女主人据称疯掉了,被关在一间软墙房内,死于一场大火,这是一个不错的假设。但是奥德雷瑟教授忽视了布兰韦尔——作者的恶棍弟弟,他也是很好的人选。在夏洛蒂的传记中,作者克莱尔·哈曼指出指出布兰韦尔在一个深夜里“用他绝望的吵闹”把一家人叫醒,只因为一个前任情人,并有传言说他点燃了自己的床。 


rumor /ˈruː.mər/

1.流言;谣传;传闻

Rumors are going round (the school) about Mr Mason and his assistant.

有关梅森先生和他助手的流言蜚语(在学校里)满天飞。

[ + that ] She's circulating/spreading rumors that the manager is going to resign.

她到处散播谣言,说经理要辞职了。

2.大家都说,据谣传说,有传言说

Rumor has it (that) you're going to be the next managing director. Is it true?

大家都说你将成为下一任总经理,这是不是真的?



The verisimilitude of Brontë’s novel has long been one of its greatest strengths (The Economist, reviewing it in 1847, argued that it was “perfectly fresh and lifelike” and, as such, “far removed from the namby pamby stuff of which fashionable novels are made”). Though this “secret history” illuminates much of the real-life mould that shaped the novel, it at times confuses autobiographical elements with autobiography. In its determination that Charlotte Brontë is Jane Eyre, many of the comparisons between true incidents and those of the fiction feel forced. Literary sleuthing is often illuminating—but it can also see clues where none really exist.


勃朗特小说的给读者的真实感一直是其作品最大的优势之一(《经济学人》在1847年为其写了书评,称这部作品非常新颖却又贴近生活,这类作品完全排除了时尚小说中多愁善感的人物。)尽管这部“秘史”阐述了很多用于塑造小说的真实事例,有些部分却搞混了自传元素和自传本身。因为在夏洛蒂就是简·爱的结论上,很多真实的事件和小说中的情节都有些牵强。文学的侦探工作总是富于启发的,然而往往也可以从并未真实存在的事情上看出线索。


verisimilitude /ˌver.ɪ.sɪˈmɪl.ɪ.tʃuːd/

貌似真实;逼真

例子:She has included photographs in the book to lend verisimilitude to the story.

她在书中使用了照片,以使故事显得更加真实。

 

mould /məʊld/

1.霉;霉菌

There was mould on the cheese.

这块奶酪发霉了。

2.模子,模具;铸模

a cake/jelly mould

蛋糕/果冻模子

3.(人的)性格,气质,类型

He's cast in a very different mould from his brother.

他和他弟弟的性格截然不同。

He's a player in the Federer mould.

他是贝克尔那一类型的球员。

Mould 还有动词意思

1.用模子制作;塑造;使成形

This plastic is going to be moulded into plates.

这些塑料将被制成盘子。

2.力图改变;对…施加影响

He kept trying to mould me into something he wanted me to be.

他总是想把我变成他希望的样子。


翻译:王铭逸涵

审核:微人引歌乱

编辑:嘉允


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