【风从海上来】谁写了第一部科幻小说?

外研社Unipus 2018-12-11 13:13:15
【风从海上来】向您介绍流行文化中的人物和作品。一场“流动的宴席”,带您撷取世界各地的文化瑰宝。作者单理扬是外研社与中央电视台主办的2009“CCTV杯”全国英语演讲大赛的全国总冠军。她希望通过这个栏目向大家介绍流行文化中的作品和人物。


Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life. As a form of literature, recently, it has aroused the interest of more Chinese readers, because Chinese writer Liu Cixin has become the first Asian author to win the Hugo Award for Best Novel, receiving the 2015 honor for his book, The Three-Body Problem. Today, let's travel back in time, to review how the first work of science fiction came into being.
科幻小说是一种文学形式,其内容充满想象,常常与未来世界、未来科技、太空探险、时光穿越、超光速旅途、平行世界和地外生命有关。作为一种文学形式,科幻小说近期吸引了更多中国读者的眼光,因为中国作家刘慈欣的科幻小说《三体》荣获了雨果奖,而刘欣慈是第一个获得该奖项的亚洲作家。今天,让我们来一场时光之旅,回到百年前,看看第一部真正意义上的科幻小说是如何诞生的。
In 1814, seventeen-year-old London girl Mary Godwin began a romantic relationship with one of her father's political followers, the married Percy Bysshe Shelley. In May 1816, the couple and their son traveled to Geneva with Claire Clairmont (Mary's stepsister and mistress of Lord Byron). They planned to spend the summer with the poet Lord Byron. The party arrived at Geneva on 14 May 1816. Byron joined them on 25 May, with his young physician, John William Polidori, and rented the Villa Diodati, close to Lake Geneva at the village of Cologny. They spent their time writing, boating on the lake, and talking late into the night.
1814年,十七岁的伦敦女孩玛丽•葛德文与她父亲在政治意见上的支持者、当时已婚的珀西•比希•雪莱坠入爱河。1816年5月,这对恋人携子与克莱尔•克莱尔蒙特(玛丽的同父异母妹妹,诗人拜伦的情妇)去日内瓦旅行。他们打算与诗人拜伦共度一个夏天。三人于1816年5月14日来到了日内瓦。拜伦在5月25日加入了他们,并且带来了约翰•威廉姆•波利多里医生。他们租下了克罗尼镇日内瓦湖畔的迪奥塔蒂别墅,一起写作、划船,常常畅谈到深夜。
"It proved a wet, ungenial summer", Mary Shelley remembered in 1831, "and incessant rain often confined us for days to the house". Sitting around a log fire at Byron's villa, the company amused themselves with German ghost stories, which prompted Byron to propose that they "each write a ghost story". Unable to think of a story, young Mary Godwin became anxious: "Have you thought of a story? I was asked each morning, and each morning I was forced to reply with a mortifying negative."
“那是一个潮湿、阴冷的夏日,”玛丽•雪莱在1831年回忆时说道,“止不住的降雨常常使得我们无法出门。”在拜伦租下的别墅内,他们围坐在温暖的壁炉边,讲述德国的鬼故事来打发时光。一次,拜伦提议他们“每人写一个鬼故事”。由于没能立即想出一个故事,年轻的玛丽有些焦虑:“你想到故事了吗?每天早上大家都这样问我,每天早上我都只能给出一个死气沉沉的否定答案。”
During one mid-June evening, the discussions turned to the nature of the principle of life. "Perhaps a corpse would be re-animated", Mary noted, "galvanism had given token of such things". It was after midnight before they retired, and unable to sleep, she became possessed by her imagination as she beheld the grim terrors of her "waking dream", which later evolved into the story of Frankenstein. Mary Shelley's book Frankenstein helped define the form of the science fiction novel, and English writer Brian Aldiss has argued that Frankenstein was the first work of science fiction.
六月中旬的一个夜晚,五人谈及了生命的原则和本质。“也许我能写一个关于失去生命的机体再度复活的故事”,玛丽说道,“电击可以成为让机体复活的象征性手段。”午夜后,他们才回房休息。玛丽却迟迟无法入睡,她的想象无法终止,她的脑海中浮现出了一个关于死体复生的“诞生之梦”,这让她感到十分恐惧,她的这一构想在日后成为了小说《弗兰肯斯坦》的故事主线。玛丽•雪莱的作品《弗兰肯斯坦》帮助定义了科幻小说这一文学形式。英国作家布里安•阿尔迪斯认为,《弗兰肯斯坦》是第一部真正意义上的科幻小说。
A hundred years ago, the young Mary Shelley could never imagine that her inspiration beside Lake Geneva would evolve into a literature of imagination and tension. Science fictions not only provide us with thrill, they also make us ponder upon our being and the nature of life.
百年前,年轻的玛丽•雪莱一定没有想到,自己在日内瓦湖畔的一个灵感会逐渐演变为一种极具张力的文学形式。科幻小说不仅给了我们充满刺激的故事情节,更让我们学会深思人类的存在和生命的本质。
英文文字部分参考:
http://www.writing-world.com/sf/sf.shtml
http://literature.britishcouncil.org/brian-aldiss
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Shelley
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankenstein
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