全部取决于基因(有声)

BBC英语 2018-09-18 14:52:03

【小编给各位读者致歉,昨天链接搞错了导致音频不能听,今天就再发一次】

Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Sophie…
大家好,欢迎收听六分钟英语。我是苏菲。
And I’m Neil. I was watching the news the other day, Sophie.
我是尼尔。苏菲,我在看前几天的新闻。
Learn anything interesting?
有什么有趣的事吗?
Yes, actually. UK scientists have been authorised by the government to genetically modify human embryos for research.What they can’t do though is implant modified embryos into women.They talked a lot about gene editing...
当然有。英国科学家获政府批准,以研究为目的修改人类胚胎基因。但他们不能将基因修改的胚胎植入妇女体内。他们还谈论了很多关于基因编辑的事。
Can you explain to us what gene editing is?
你能解释一下什么是基因修改吗?
Mmm… I think this means there are these letters in a code – A-B-C something…I can’t remember exactly…
我认为是指基因的编码由A-B-C什么字母组成,具体的我不记得了。
Gene editing is the ability to manipulate – or control – DNA.And in case you didn’t know, DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid – this is a substance in the cells of animals and plants that contains genetic information.And a gene is part of the DNA in the cellthat controls the physical development and behaviour of a plant or animal and is passed on from its parents.
基因编辑是对DNA进行操纵或控制的能力。以免你不知道,DNA是脱氧核糖核酸的缩写。这种物质存在于动植物的细胞内,储存有基因信息。基因是细胞内DNA的一部分,控制着动植物的身体发育和行为方式,从父母那里遗传而来。
Phew! Thanks for the science lesson, Sophie.
唷!苏菲,谢谢你给我上的这堂科学课。
You’re welcome. Now here’s a question for you, Neil:Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society where humans are genetically engineered?Is it…a) Robocopb) Gattacaor c) Blade Runner
不客气。有一个问题要问你:哪部科幻电影预言了反乌托邦社会的基因编辑,那里的人们接受了基因工程的改造?a) 《机械战警》b) 《千钧一发》还是c) 《银翼杀手》
Mmm… I don’t really understand the question but I’m going to say c) Blade Runner.What’s dystopian?
恩,其实我不太明白这个问题,我选c) 银翼杀手。什么是反乌托邦?
Dystopian means an imaginary society where people are unhappy and afraid.Well, moving on, let’s listen to BBC journalist Fergus Walsh talking about how gene editing works.
反乌托邦指一种假象的社会,人们在其中生活得不幸福,充满恐惧。好了,继续,我们来听听BBC记者Fergus Walsh讲述基因编辑如何起作用。
Think of gene editing as a molecular sat nav.It scans the DNA searching for the error. Then it uses molecular scissors to snip through both strands, which switches off the faulty gene.Or it can repair the code by inserting a healthy copy of the gene.These techniques raise the prospect of treating – even curing – some genetic diseases – and it’s not science fiction.
将基因编辑想象为分子的卫星导航。它对DNA进行扫描来发现漏洞。之后使用分子剪刀将双链剪断,阻断错误的基因。或者可以通过植入健康的基因修复基因编码。这些技术有望治疗甚至治愈一些基因疾病,而且这并不是科幻小说。
So DNA is a set of instructions for how our bodies work written using a chemical code of four letters – A, T, C, G.But sometimes the code contains mistakes.
DNA是一系列指令,以四个字母A, T, C, G组成的化学编码指示我们的身体如何运作。但是有时这些编码会出现错误。
Yes. You find spelling mistakes by scanning – or searching – through the DNA.Then you snip – or cut out – the mistake or faulty gene from the code using molecular scissors. Faulty by the way, means something that isn’t working properly – like the faulty brakes on my bike.
是的。你可以通过扫描发现错误编码。然后用分子剪刀将有缺陷的基因切除。有缺陷的是指某物不能正常运作,就像我自行车上的闸不灵了。
That sounds really dangerous, Neil!
这听上去真的很危险,尼尔!
Yeah, but I’m more worried about my faulty genes.I might have all sorts of genetic mistakes inside me.
是,但是我更担心有缺陷的基因。也许我身体内部存在各种基因缺陷。
That wouldn’t surprise me.But you’ve actually touched on a serious point. Latest research suggests all our bodies do contain genetic mistakes, some of which could cause disease.And as reporter Fergus Walsh said at the end of the clip, gene editing could be important for treating or even curing inherited genetic diseases.For patients with blood, immune, muscle or skin disorders it offers the possibilitythat their faulty cells could be removed, or changed in the lab, and then put back.
这我一点也不惊讶。不过你确实提到很关键的一点。最近研究显示我们的身体都存在基因缺陷,一些甚至会导致疾病。就如Fergus Walsh记者最后所说,基因编辑对治疗甚至治愈遗传疾病很重要。对于血液、免疫系统、肌肉或皮肤疾病的患者来说,基因编辑为他们的治疗提供了可能性,他们有缺陷的细胞可以被移除,或者在实验室将其修改,然后放回体内。
That sounds amazing. But is there a catch?
这听上去很棒。但是有什么隐患吗?
And that means a problem or drawback.Yes. Some people think that if editing the genes of a human embryo is allowed for curing disease, this will lead to editing the genes of embryos for reasons other than health.Let’s listen to Marcy Darnovsky, executive director of the Centre for Genetics and Society in California talking about her concerns.
隐患是指问题或缺陷。有的。一些人认为如果人体胚胎的基因可以修改,用以治疗疾病,这将导致以健康外的目的进行的胚胎基因修改。Marcy Darnovsky是加州遗传学与社会中心的执行董事,我们来听听她的担忧。
It’s too risky, we don’t need it, there are other ways to have healthy children, and it would open the door – possibly – to a world of genetic haves and have nots.We don’t need more inequality, we don’t need more discrimination in the world.
这种方式太冒险了,我们不需要,还有其他方式可以生育健康的孩子。而且这会催生富人与穷人之间的基因差距。我们不能再创造不公了,世界不能再多一种歧视。
An embryo by the way is an animal or human starting to develop inside its mother.Marcy Darnovsky is against gene editingbecause it may be used to create designer babies– or babies whose genes have been selected to have certain desirable characteristics.
胚胎是指动物或人类在母体内发育时的最初形式。Marcy Darnovsky反对基因编辑,因为这会被用来进行人工培育良种婴儿,即父母选择婴儿具备怎样的基因特点。
She says it may open the door – or make it possible – a situationwhere embryos are genetically enhanced – or improved – to be more intelligent or physically stronger, for example.
她说这会提供一种可能,使得胚胎的基因得到改善,使得孩子智商更加聪明,身体更加强壮。
And this will lead to more discrimination in the world – which means treating some people less fairly than others…
这会导致更多的歧视,也就是不公正得区别对待一些人。
…which is something that science fiction has been predicting for many years.It’s that dystopian society we were discussing earlier, Neil!Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society where humans are genetically engineered?Is it… a) Robocop b) Gattaca or c) Blade Runner?
这就是许多年前科幻小说就已经预言到的事。就是我们之前讨论过的反乌托邦社会。哪部科幻电影预言了反乌托邦社会的基因编辑,那里的人们接受了基因工程的改造?a) 《机械战警》b) 《千钧一发》还是c) 《银翼杀手》
And I said c) Blade Runner.
我选的是c) 《银翼杀手》。
Sorry, Neil! It was b) Gattaca.This 1997 sci-fi film centres on the character Vincent Freeman, who wasn’t genetically engineered,but is able to buy the genetic identity of another man in order to pursue his dream of travelling into space. The film’s title uses the letters G, A, T and C, which are the four chemical codes making up DNA.
不好意思,尼尔!正确答案是b) 《千钧一发》。这部1997年的科幻电影主要围绕主人公Vincent Freeman展开,他并未接受基因工程的改造,但为了能实现自己遨游太空的梦想,他买下了另一个人的基因身份。这个电影的名字用到了G, A, T, C这几个字母,这是组成DNA的四个化学代码。
Now here are today’s words:
现在,我们再来听一遍今天的单词:
gene editing
基因编辑
manipulate
操纵
DNA
脱氧核糖核酸
gene
基因
dystopian
反乌托邦
scanning
浏览
snip
剪断
faulty
缺陷
catch
隐患
embryo
胚胎
designer babies
人工培育良种婴儿
open the door
有可能
enhanced
改善
discrimination
歧视
Well, that’s the end of today’s 6 Minute English.Please do join us again soon!
今天的六分钟英语就到这里。我们下次再会!
Bye.
再见!

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