里予万象 | 海明威小说里那只豹子是真实存在的吗?

里予Adventure 2018-11-14 11:39:38


我们希望有一天,有更多的人开始真正把户外作为一种生活方式。它不仅仅是一种特立独行和放荡不羁,更普遍或者说更重要的是,它是根源于每个人的心中,对于自然的好奇与人文的关怀……


为此,里予精选优秀的原版文章,向中国读者推荐小众旅行目的地以及有品位的生活方式,特别邀请经验丰富的编译团队打造「万象」专栏,带您领略户外旅行的万种风情。





乞 力 马 扎 罗 的 传 说

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说起户外旅行,位于坦桑尼亚东北部的乞力马扎罗山绝对是每个户外旅行者的梦想之地。今天,咱们就来探索下这座被称作“非洲屋脊”的山峰有着什么特别之处。


Kilimanjaro  |  From Alpine Ascents


对于大多数攀登乞力马扎罗山的登山者而言,登顶就是他们的终极目标。虽然没有技术上的挑战,但徒步到乞力马扎罗山山顶也不可能像在国家公园散步一样简单。平均算下来大约一半的徒步旅行者都没能成功登顶。高原反应和身体不适便是这一高失败率的源头。8天的徒步旅行都需要在艰难的火山地形上缓慢前进,有时肺部、膝盖和脚踝都无法承受。


Climbing Kili  |  From Alpine Ascents


然而对于成千上万没有登到顶峰的人来说,从这次努力中获得的经验教训却和成功登顶一样珍贵。有些人会发现,这并不是以一己之力就能完成的,更需要的是团队之间互帮互助。哪怕没有成功,也可以非常平静地面对这一结果,因为他们知道自己至少可以从这次经历中获得新的友谊甚至可能与其成为至交好友。


Climbing Kili  |  From AlienAdv


这次的失败会成为自己精神和身体状态的试金石,就像给自己注射了一针强心剂,让自己能够更好地迎接下一次挑战,不论是登顶乞力马扎罗山还是完成一项重要的工作,或者是解决其他任何可能超出自己掌控的事情。


 Summiting Kili  |  From kimimanjaro climbing company


除此之外,最令人感兴趣的便是乞力马扎罗山数不清的神话传说,有的甚至流传了几个世纪。今天我们就来说说最令人津津乐道的前三个。


Volcano above the clouds in 2003  |  From Youtube


冰 川 融 化


自1800年以来,乞力马扎罗山山顶上的冰川就一直在融化。自2000年以来,冰川融化的速度增加了26%,但至今为止仍有超过7亿立方英尺的冰在山顶上,这一点也是你将在长途跋涉中需要克服的。


Glacier  |  From danasafaris.com


艾尔·戈尔将乞力马扎罗山冰川的融化归因于全球变暖,但是另外的一些科学家却觉得,这是由于对山区低地森林的砍伐引起湿度变小和降水量变少所导致的。总而言之,乞力马扎罗山冰川的融化原因的争论将僵持不下。


Kili Meltdown  |  From Wikipedia


山 顶 的 豹


海明威的《乞力马扎罗山的雪》是以一只在山顶上被冻住的美洲豹开始的。事实上,这只是一个开篇的比喻而已,因为从未离开过热带草原狩猎地的他,当然没有亲眼见过,只是以当地的神话传说为蓝本写下这段戏剧性十足的文字的。


Leopard  |  From Life away from life


所以在乞力马扎罗山山顶能看到豹子吗?答案是不可能的。因为你徒步登山的头几天在森林里可能会看到野生动物,但当你一旦走到森林覆盖不到的地方,就只能看到一些神秘的狮子和老虎悄然潜行寻觅猎物。


Giraffe  |  From Rel.com


巨 头 侏 儒


当地查加部落的人仍然相信,被他们称作“Wakonyingo”的小矮人藏身在乞力马扎罗山山坡下的洞穴里的,过着所有侏儒都会喜欢的生活。他们和牲畜一起生活,在洞穴里种植香蕉树,传说洞穴里还藏着通向天堂的梯子。


传说Wakonyingo有巨大的畸形头部,他们从不躺下,而是靠在墙上,毕竟头重脚轻的身体比例很难像我们一样起床。可想而知,任何的绊倒或滑倒都可能让他们瘫痪,所以为了安全起见,他们会把一个号角挂在脖子上,吹响号角就是向同伴发出信号:“救命!我摔倒了!起不来了!”


Chagga Tribe  |  From coyee.com


他们也喜欢对遇到麻烦的人施以援手。如果你在爬乞力马扎罗山迷路了,也许就会出现一个“大头娃娃”来给你指路哦~【还是不要了吧哈哈哈】不过也有说法是他们专门捕食那些将消极情绪带到山里的人,注意爬山时可不要轻易气馁。

 

其实,巨头侏儒的传说可能是基于事实的,根据历史记载,Wakonyingo是早期居住在乞力马扎罗山的部落,他们赶走了入侵的其他部落,有迹象显示侏儒族人曾在山里出没。不过不要担心,这些巨头侏儒是不会钻进你的帐篷里打扰你的。


Chagga Dance  |  From Youtube


乞力马扎罗山如火山一般不断喷发出形形色色的神话传说。其古老经典的神话和日新月盛的传说交相辉映,显得其神秘无比。所以神话传说是这座山神秘感当之无愧的功臣之一,而我们都希望它将永存不朽。


The foot of Kili  |  From ThoughtCo


MITH ABOUT KILIMANJARO

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Although not a technical challenge, hiking to the top of Mt. Kilimanjaro is far from a walk in the national park. On average, about half of trekkers fail to reach Kili’s summit.


Altitude sickness and body breakdowns cause the high failure rate. The eight day hike is slow going over difficult volcanic terrain and sometimes lungs, knees and ankles don’t hold up.


Kili Summit  |  From Adventure Consultants


For most hikers attempting Kilimanjaro, the goal of reaching the summit is the be-all/end-all. For thousands who don’t reach the summit, the lessons learned from making the effort can be just as rewarding as bagging the peak. Sometimes it’s just not about you, but about the teamwork of pushing each other upward. You can be at peace with not making the summit and still having the experience of a lifetime making new and deep friendships.


Climbing Together  |  From Kimanjaro Brothers


Not making the summit can be the litmus test on your mental and physical state, a wake up call to be stronger for the next shot at Kili’s summit or that big job or anything else that might have eluded your grasp.


Mount Kilimanjaro has been wrapped in mythology for a century and there are hundreds of legends and myths. Let’s boil them down to the top three.


Go Downhill  |  From Wilderness Travel


The glaciers atop Kilimanjaro have been melting since the 1800’s. The rate of melt has increased since 2000 with a 26 percent loss, but there still remains over 700 million cubic feet of ice atop the summit that you will contend with on your Tusker trek. 


Al Gore attributed Kili’s meltdown to global warming, but several scientists say the cutting of the mountain’s lowland forests leads to less humidity and less precipitation. Kili’s melt is an ongoing debate and phenomena.


Kili Glacier  |  From Harshil Gudka


Hemingway’s “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” begins with a leopard frozen at the summit. It was an apt metaphor to start his book, but he never saw one. In fact, he never hiked beyond his savanna safari camp but relied on local myths to pen his dramatic lead paragraph. You are not going to see a leopard atop Kilimanjaro. You may see wildlife in the first days of your hike in the forests, but once above tree-line there are only mythical felines on the prowl.


Leopard  |  From Dinosaur Archives


Chaaga local tribesmen still believe that mountain dwarfs they call Wakonyingo live in caves beneath Kili’s slopes. They have ladders that reach into the sky. They never lie down but lean against a wall, as getting up is hard with their top-heavy build. No doubt this is a dangerous life – any stumble or slip would leave the Wakonyingo incapacitated. As a safety precaution, they wear horns around their necks. Sounding the horn is the fairyland equivalent of “Help, I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.”


Chagga local tribesmen  |  From Marakuo Tours&Safaris


Wakonyingo take pity on people in trouble and will help them if they are lost.The Wakonyingo have oversized heads and prey upon those who bring negative spirits to the mountain. 


The myth could be based on reality as there is evidence that pygmies once roamed the mountain. Rest assured some dwarf with a big head is not going to hassle you in your tent.


Kilimanjaro is a mythical mountain that spews new and old myths from its volcanic core. The myths are part of the mountain’s mystique that we hope will never end.


Kilimanjaro  |  From Antonio Soletti



资料来源:

www.abookofcreatures.com

www.tusker.com

www.coyee.com

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